Extinct and endangered Chadic languages

Many Chadic languages are known to be endangered and some are already extinct. The following is a comparison of the information given on the status of endangerment of Chadic languages in three different online publications.

1. In the online version of the 15th edition of the Ethnologue, seven Chadic languages are listed as “nearly extinct“. According to the Ethnologue,

They are classified in this way when “only a few elderly speakers are still living.” The entries below give just the known population information. Click on “More information” to see the full entry for the language.

2. In Roger Blench’s 2003 reference list “The Chadic Languages“, the number is even higher. He makes a distinction between severely endangered Chadic languages and Chadic languages of questionable status.

Chadic languages severely endangered:

  • Baldamu
  • Bure
  • Holma
  • Jilbe
  • Mabire
  • Miltu
  • Musunye
  • Torom

Chadic languages of questionable status:

  • Buso
  • Kujarge
  • Laal
  • Luri

Blench also lists four Chadic languages known to be extinct:

  • Auyokanci
  • Muskum
  • Shira
  • Teshena

3. In the Atlas on endangered languages produced by UNESCO, the following languages are listed as endangered:

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